• If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • Whenever you search in PBworks or on the Web, Dokkio Sidebar (from the makers of PBworks) will run the same search in your Drive, Dropbox, OneDrive, Gmail, Slack, and browsed web pages. Now you can find what you're looking for wherever it lives. Try Dokkio Sidebar for free.



Page history last edited by PBworks 15 years, 6 months ago
Information literacy is defined Englebardt & Nelson as the ability to identify information need, locate pertinent information, evaluate the information and apply it correctly. There is also computer literacy.

 This is a "worksheet", at present, of frameworks, theories and concepts that will help guide the work of WG1.



Alspatch, 1984: "a simultaneous integration of knowledge, skill and attitudes that are required for performance in a designated role or setting."



Random House dictionary definition of competence: the quality of being competent; adequacy; possession of required skill, knowledge, qualification, or capacity



Patricia Hinton Walker, PhD, RN, FAAN informed us on 8/23/07:

Brian:  The person I am referring to - is Dr. Carrie Lenburg.  Because of this work in competency-based assessment/learning/measurement, she is being inducted into as a Living Legend into the American Academy of Nursing this year and into the the new NLN Academy of Educators (both great distinct honors in our profession).  Her model is called the COPA model  - or Lenburg's COPA Model and I can send you some referrences on this if you need them.  Her model on competencies is probably the most recognized and is the only one that I am familiar with that really guides educators and practitioners in the area of measurement of competencies.  Other more recent work - is not as carefully constructed - with evaluation in mind - nor has stood the national test of accreditation. She has also worked extensively with the specialty organizations as a consultant and with the Feds in this area.  Hope this is helpful.  Pat


    Competency, as an approach to professional education and practice, is defined as 'A combination of attributes enabling performance of a range of professional tasks to the appropriate standards.' (Gonczi, Hager & Oliver, 1990: 62).

    Competency encompasses more than just a psychomotor skill. The team competency in these contexts now describes the attributes of knowledge, abilities, skills and attitudes that underlie competent performance. (Gonczi et al., 1990: 62). Competency standards specify the level of achievement expected and the tasks and contexts of professional practice in which we may see the competency demonstrated. (Gonczi et al., 1990: 10).


     Although the words sound alike, competence and competency aren't synonymous. Competence means a "potential ability, a capability to function in a given situation," but competency focuses on your "actual performance in a situation." That means you need competence before you can expect to achieve competency. Your competence makes you capable of fulfilling your job responsibilities. Competency, however, means that you fulfill your job as expected. Competency is determined by comparing where you are now with established performance standards developed in the work environment according to your role and setting. (McConnell, Edwina. Nursing, Sept 1998).


     Competency-based practice (CBP) is defined as a patient care delivery system that emphasizes the nurse's ability to demonstrate competence in the high risk, high volume, and problem prone aspects of care related to a specific role and clinical setting. Unlike traditional nursing practice models, CBP expectations are derived from the "real world" of nursing and focus on "doing" rather than on only "knowing". A competency statement is a broad statement of expected performance.

     Performance criteria are the essential knowledge, skills, and/or values and attitudes required to achieve competency (the provision of safe care). The criteria are the actual steps which must be followed and answer the question "What do I have to do to do it right?" (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center).


     A competence model contained the following descriptors:

1. Unconscious incompetence - you do not know what you do not know, lack knowledge and skills in the area in question and are unaware of this lack.

2. Conscious incompetence - realization that one are not the expert they thought they were or could be, can exist in this state for a long time, depending on factors such as determination to learn and the real extent to which one accepts their incompetence.

3. Conscious competence - becoming consciously competent often takes a while, as one steadily learns about the new area, either through experience or more formal learning. This process can go in fits and starts as one learns, forgets, plateaus and starts anew.

4. Unconscious competence - eventually a point is reached where one no longer has to think about what one is doing, and is competent without the significant effort that characterizes the state of conscious competence.

Appears to be based on Patricia Benner's Novice to Expert model.


     A Competency Model is a list of competencies identified as critical to the successful performance of a particular role. People who excel at their jobs demonstrate behaviors that distinguish them from their peers. Directing these behaviors are "competencies," which we define as underlying personal characteristics that differentiate outstanding performance from average performance in a given job, role, organization, or culture. The different types of competencies can be depicted at different levels. The upper levels are easy to see, but they do not typically predict or determine outstanding performance. It is the deeper levels of competencies (traits and motives) that direct people's behavior, and thus their performance. (MIT 1996)

Massachusettes framework for competencies consists of: knowledge, attitude, skills, Benner's Novice to Expert Framework.


Competency Outcomes Performance Assessment (COPA) Model - 8 Core Prqactice Competencies

1. Assessment and intervention skills

2. Communication skills

3. Critical thinking skills

4. Human caring and relationship skills

5. Teaching skills

6. management skills

7. Leadership skills

8. Knowledge integration skills



9/10 Literacy Competency - http://www.riosalado.edu/distance_learning/info_lit_rubric.shtml Information


  1. Identify the kind of information needed for a specific research purpose.
  2. Develop a successful search strategy to locate specific sources that meet the research purpose.
  3. Given specific criteria, evaluate the information content of the sources by using critical thinking skills.
  4. Apply the information appropriately in a research task.
  5. Performance Indicators
    1. Formulates questions based on the information need (e.g. types of sources needed, current vs. historical information, scholarly vs. popular)
    2. Explores general information sources to increase familiarity with topic
    3. Defines or modifies the topic to achieve a manageable focus
    4. Clarifies and revises the initial information need as necessary
    Performance Indicators
    1. Selects appropriate retrieval systems (books, periodicals, newspapers, electronic resources)
    2. Identifies keywords, search terms
    3. Constructs and implements a search strategy appropriate to the retrieval system (Boolean for electronic, or indexes for books)
    4. Retrieves information online or in person as appropriate
    5. Refines the search terms and search strategy as needed
    Performance Indicators
    1. Summarizes main ideas extracted from sources
    2. Evaluates sources using such criteria as reliability, authority, accuracy, validity, timeliness, bias
    3. Revises initial query as needed if additional information is required
    Performance Indicators
    1. Organizes the content (e.g. outline, draft)
    2. Communicates the product effectively to others, clearly and with a style appropriate to the intended audience
    3. Attributes directly quoted information appropriately
    4. Cites sources accurately and correctly


    Information Literacy Rubric

    4 = Exemplary

    3 = College Level-Expected

    2 = Below College Level-Intervention Recommended

    1 = Poor-Intervention Required

    4 The student has clearly defined and focused the topic, has researched and located multiple sources appropriate to the subject matter of the topic that are varied both in content and format, and demonstrates a superior level of depth regarding understanding of the subject matter, analysis of the material, and critical thinking.
    3 The student has defined the topic, researched and located some sources that are appropriate to the topic with variety in content and format, and demonstrates a clear understanding of the subject matter with some evidence of analysis and critical thinking.
    2 The student has not defined or clearly focused the topic, shows little evidence of analysis and critical thinking, and some of the chosen sources are irrelevant or insufficient.
    1 The student has not defined the topic, has used the most easily available information without regard to appropriateness, and demonstrates no evidence of analysis or critical thinking skills.



Information literacy is defined Englebardt & Nelson as the ability to identify information need, locate pertinent information, evaluate the information and apply it correctly. There is also computer literacy.


Comments (0)

You don't have permission to comment on this page.